4.1 Key findings:

  Based on our results,we have found out that Activated Carbon can be used as a possible way of reducing turbidity levels, and that the more layers,the lower the turbidity level.However,we did not manage to get a turbidity level of 1-0.5 NTU,also in order to prevent the fine particles from the Activated Carbon from turning the water black,we had to use cotton to prevent the fine particles from entering the water.

4.2 Explanation of key findings: 

According to How Stuff, W. (2014, February 25). What is activated charcoal and why is it used in filters?. Retrieved from http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/energy/question209.htm,when  the water flows down the activated carbon,the activated carbon adsorbs odorous or coloured substances in the pond water , and this lowers the turbidity level of the pond water.Many other chemicals are not attracted to carbon at all -- sodium, nitrates, etc. -- so they pass right through. This means that an activated charcoal filter will remove certain impurities while ignoring others.

The turbidity level of the pond water was 42.6 NTU before we filtered it through the activated carbon,after filtering it through 1 layer of activated carbon,the turbidity levels dropped to 38.5 NTU.After filtering through 2 layers of activated carbon, the turbidity level of the water dropped to 13.6 NTU and after 3 layers,the turbidity dropped to 13.4 NTU and after 4 layers, the turbidity lowered to 6.7 NTU. This is because the water will be filtered several times,passing through more activated carbon, thus filtration will be more effective because the other layers of activated carbon can pick up any chemicals and particles which got through the first few layers of activated carbon beforehand.

4.3 Evaluation of hypothesis:

Our hypothesis: The more layers used for the activated carbon, the cleaner the water is and the lower the turbidity of the water.We can conclude that this is correct,as when we increased the layers of activated carbon,the turbidity of the water decreases.This is because the water will be filtered several times, thus filtration will be more effective because the other filters can pick up any chemicals and particles which got through the filters beforehand.

4.4 Areas for improvement:

We could have improved on a few things.
First,we could have used better ways to measure the amount of activated carbon used for example weight.This would have allowed everything to be the same,so there would not be any effects to the results. We could have used activated carbon that did not turn the water black,in order to prevent the water from getting an even higher turbidity level than the pond water.

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