1.Introduction



 According to Christiana Z., P. (2014, February 4). Where we get our fresh water. Retrieved from http://ed.ted.com/lessons/where-we-get-our-fresh-water-christiana-z-peppard
around 97.5% of the earth’s water is oceans, making the remaining 2.5% fresh water which is used to sustain human lives on earth. The 2.5% of fresh water is broken down into different parts, surface water, polar regions and ground water. 0.3% of the freshwater is surface water which is all fresh water that is above the ground. 70% of the earth’s freshwater is the polar ice caps which is not available for human use. The remaining 30% of freshwater is groundwater, groundwater is easier to obtain then frozen water and more reliable than surface water. Due to industrialization, there is an increasing amount of water usage. Agriculture uses 70% of our freshwater. Therefore, with this limited amount of water, it is not enough for future usage and we need to find more ways to filter the unusable 97.5% of the earths water to sustain the earth in the future. 

We want to find new ways to filter the water to make it safe for drinking,as the population is rising,more water needs to be consumed,thus there has to be more drinkable water to meet the need. We are going to observe the relationship between the layers and the turbidity of the water.So we are finding out if activated carbon can be used as a filter for turbidity.


Background Research:
What is Activated Carbon?
According to How Stuff, W. (2014, February 25). What is activated charcoal and why is it used in filters?. Retrieved from http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/energy/question209.htm Charcoal is carbon.Activated Charcoal is charcoal that has been treated with oxygen to open up millions of tiny pores between the carbon atoms.
The use of special manufacturing techniques results in highly porous charcoals that have surface areas of 300-2,000 square metres per gram. These so-called active, or activated, charcoals are widely used to adsorb odorous or coloured substances from gases or liquids. ­
Activated charcoal is good at trapping other carbon-based impurities ("organic" chemicals), as well as things like chlorine. Many other chemicals are not attracted to carbon at all -- sodium, nitrates, etc. -- so they pass right through. This means that an activated charcoal filter will remove certain impurities while ignoring others. It also means that, once all of the bonding sites are filled, an activated charcoal filter stops working. At that point you must replace the filter.

How is Activated Carbon used in filters?:


According to Michigan State University, E. (2006, March 24). Activated carbon water treatment. Retrieved from http://www.msue.msu.edu/objects/content_revision/download.cfm/revision_id.499668/workspace_id.-4/01500610.html/  Activated carbon (AC) filters have been used in home water purification systems primarily to remove taste and odor. Taste and odor, although undesirable, are generally not considered unhealthy. In recent years, however, AC filters have been used to remove some of the contaminants that have been discovered in water supplies. AC is most effective at removing organic compounds such as volatile organic compounds, pesticides and benzene. It can also remove some metals, chlorine and radon. As with any treatment system, it cannot remove all possible drinking water contaminants. 



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