Monday, 3 March 2014

Experiment Results

Without Filter
Turbidity of Pond Water without filtration: 42.6 NTU

With Filter 
One layer: 38.5 NTU

Two Layers: 13.6 NTU

Three Layers: 13.4 NTU                             One Layer of 
                                                                    Activated Carbon = 50ml
Four Layers: 6.7 NTU


Monday, 24 February 2014

Research Plan


Christiana Z., P. (2014, February 4). Where we get our fresh water. Retrieved from
around 97.5% of the earth’s water is oceans, making the remaining 2.5% fresh water which is used to sustain human lives on earth. The 2.5% of fresh water is broken down into different parts, surface water, polar regions and ground water. 0.3% of the freshwater is surface water which is all fresh water that is above the ground. 70% of the earth’s freshwater is the polar ice caps which is not available for human use. The remaining 30% of freshwater is groundwater, groundwater is easier to obtain then frozen water and more reliable than surface water. Due to industrialization, there is an increasing amount of water usage. Agriculture uses 70% of our freshwater. Therefore, with this limited amount of water, it is not enough for future usage and we need to find more ways to filter the unusable 97.5% of the earths water to sustain the earth in the future.

We want to find new ways to filter the water to make it safe for drinking,as the population is rising,more water needs to be consumed,thus there has to be more drinkable water to meet the need.So we are finding out if activated carbon can be used as a filter for turbidity.

Monday, 20 January 2014

Research Title

Our research title is the effect of filters on water quality 
We decided to do this topic because water is a huge resource,and only 3% of the worlds water is drinkable, water is important for agriculture,recreation,people are trying to find ways on how to get more water,examples include NEWater.Singapore has to buy imported water from Malaysia,if war breaks out,Singapore might not be able to survive with the amount of water we have.If we are able to find a way to purify water at an affordable price,this would help Singapore and the world greatly.

Our plan now is to find out how many layers of activated carbon is the best for filtering the water to the best turbidity in terms of the W.H.O standards 


1) Effects on water after filtering (Ryan Ng)
2) Duration of filtering (Kai Cheng)
3) Different types of filter (Luke)
4) People's opinion on the different types of filtration method (Chester)

Monday, 13 January 2014

21st Century Problems

1. Destruction of life in the Ocean
Only 10% of edible fish remains in the ocean, and this number is rapidly declining.

2. Wars that could end civilisation.
A global war like World War I or II, conducted with today's vast number of nuclear weapons and new biological weapons, could end civilisation.

3. The spread of deserts.
Soil is being eroded. Deserts are spreading in areas were there used to be fertile soil and grassland.

21st Century Problems

  1. NON-STATE ACTORS WITH EXTREME WEAPONS Nuclear or biological weapons are becoming easier to build by terrorist organizations, political groups or individuals, who are not acting for a given state.
  2.  VIOLENT RELIGIOUS EXTREMISM Religious extremism and jihads may become widespread, leading to large numbers of suicide terrorists, and religious war between Muslims and Christians.
  3. RUNAWAY COMPUTER INTELLIGENCE Computers will acquire the capability to increase their own intelligence until a chain reaction happens of machines becoming more intelligent at electronic speed.

21st Century Problems

1.Unsustainable Fishing

How can we avoid the collapse of a resource that remains an essential part of food security and vital to the communities and livelihoods of half a billion people across the planet?

2.Pollution Crisis is a major problem all around the world. It has adversely affected the lives of millions of people and caused many deaths and health disorders.Polluted waters kill animals,pollution also plays a part in global warming.

3.Water is our past. Water is our future. Without it, we cannot survive, and there are no alternatives.The global lack of abundance of usable water is an issue that presents a dangerous problem to our future. Ironically, only a small portion of our planet's water is actually usable,how can we get more usable water?

3 21st Century Challenges

1) Feeding the 9 billion

Our global food system is under increasing strain. We need to produce and supply enough safe and nutritious food in a sustainable way to a population which is expected to rise to 9 billion by 2050. How are we meeting this challenge with new technology as well as new thinking?

2) The Energy Water Food Stress Nexus

The world’s water, energy and food systems are tightly linked. Water is needed to extract energy and generate power; energy is needed to treat and transport water; and both water and energy are needed to grow food. In the coming decades, this relationship, known as the energy-water-food nexus will come under great pressure and is appearing on the agendas of governments, NGOs and businesses.

3) Global health in the 21st Century

Can societies strike a balance between combating the dangers of viral outbreaks and pandemics, while maintaining the hopes of eradicating established diseases, such as malaria and HIV/AIDS, which continue to claim millions of lives each year?